In yesterday’s post we examined the danger of marginalizing God and how the Lord warns that such a thing is a civilization killer. In today’s post we ponder a more sociological examination of how cultures and civilizations go through cycles. Over time, many civilizations and cultures have risen and then fallen. We who live in painful times like these do well to recall these truths. Cultures and civilizations come and go; only the Church (though often in need of reform) and true biblical culture remain. An old song says, “Only what you do for Christ will last.” Yes, all else passes; the Church is like an ark in the passing waters of this world and in the floodwaters of times like these.
For those of us who love our country and our culture, the pain is real. By God’s grace, many fair flowers have come from Western culture as it grew over the past millennium. Whatever its imperfections (and there were many), great beauty, civilization, and progress emerged at the crossroads of faith and human giftedness. But now it appears that we are at the end of an era. We are in a tailspin we don’t we seem to be able to pull ourselves out of. Greed, aversion to sacrifice, secularism, divorce, promiscuity, and the destruction of the most basic unit of civilization (the family), do not make for a healthy culture. There seems to be no basis for true reform and the deepening darkness suggests that we are moving into the last stages of a disease. This is painful but not unprecedented.
Sociologists and anthropologists have described the stages of the rise and fall of the world’s great civilizations. Scottish philosopher Alexander Tyler of the University of Edinburg noted eight stages that articulate well what history discloses. I first encountered these in in Ted Flynn’s book The Great Transformation. They provide a great deal of perspective to what we are currently experiencing.
Let’s look at each of the eight stages. The names of the stages are from Tyler’s book and are presented in bold red text. My brief reflections follow in plain text.
- From bondage to spiritual growth – Great civilizations are formed in the crucible. The Ancient Jews were in bondage for 400 years in Egypt. The Christian faith and the Church came out of 300 years of persecution. Western Christendom emerged from the chaotic conflicts during the decline of the Roman Empire and the movements of often fierce “barbarian” tribes. American culture was formed by the injustices that grew in colonial times. Sufferings and injustices cause—even force—spiritual growth. Suffering brings wisdom and demands a spiritual discipline that seeks justice and solutions.
- From spiritual growth to great courage – Having been steeled in the crucible of suffering, courage and the ability to endure great sacrifice come forth. Anointed leaders emerge and people are summoned to courage and sacrifice (including loss of life) in order to create a better, more just world for succeeding generations. People who have little or nothing, also have little or nothing to lose and are often more willing to live for something more important than themselves and their own pleasure. A battle is begun, a battle requiring courage, discipline, and other virtues.
- From courage to liberty – As a result of the courageous fight, the foe is vanquished and liberty and greater justice emerges. At this point a civilization comes forth, rooted in its greatest ideals. Many who led the battle are still alive, and the legacy of those who are not is still fresh. Heroism and the virtues that brought about liberty are still esteemed. The ideals that were struggled for during the years in the crucible are still largely agreed upon.
- From liberty to abundance – Liberty ushers in greater prosperity, because a civilization is still functioning with the virtues of sacrifice and hard work. But then comes the first danger: abundance. Things that are in too great an abundance tend to weigh us down and take on a life of their own. At the same time, the struggles that engender wisdom and steel the soul to proper discipline and priorities move to the background. Jesus said that man’s life does not consist in his possessions. But just try to tell that to people in a culture that starts to experience abundance. Such a culture is living on the fumes of earlier sacrifices; its people become less and less willing to make such sacrifices. Ideals diminish in importance and abundance weighs down the souls of the citizens. The sacrifices, discipline, and virtues responsible for the thriving of the civilization are increasingly remote from the collective conscience; the enjoyment of their fruits becomes the focus.
- From abundance to complacency – To be complacent means to be self-satisfied and increasingly unaware of serious trends that undermine health and the ability to thrive. Everything looks fine, so it must be fine. Yet foundations, resources, infrastructures, and necessary virtues are all crumbling. As virtues, disciplines, and ideals become ever more remote, those who raise alarms are labeled by the complacent as “killjoys” and considered extreme, harsh, or judgmental.
- From complacency to apathy – The word apathy comes from the Greek and refers to a lack of interest in, or passion for, the things that once animated and inspired. Due to the complacency of the previous stage, the growing lack of attention to disturbing trends advances to outright dismissal. Many seldom think or care about the sacrifices of previous generations and lose a sense that they must work for and contribute to the common good. “Civilization” suffers the serious blow of being replaced by personalization and privatization in growing degrees. Working and sacrificing for others becomes more remote. Growing numbers becoming increasingly willing to live on the carcass of previous sacrifices. They park on someone else’s dime, but will not fill the parking meter themselves. Hard work and self-discipline continue to erode.
- From apathy to dependence – Increasing numbers of people lack the virtues and zeal necessary to work and contribute. The suffering and the sacrifices that built the culture are now a distant memory. As discipline and work increasingly seem “too hard,” dependence grows. The collective culture now tips in the direction of dependence. Suffering of any sort seems intolerable. But virtue is not seen as the solution. Having lived on the sacrifices of others for years, the civilization now insists that “others” must solve their woes. This ushers in growing demands for governmental, collective solutions. This in turns deepens dependence, as solutions move from personal virtue and local, family-based sacrifices to centralized ones.
- From dependence back to bondage – As dependence increases, so does centralized power. Dependent people tend to become increasingly dysfunctional and desperate. Seeking a savior, they look to strong central leadership. But centralized power corrupts, and tends to usher in increasing intrusion by centralized power. Injustice and intrusion multiplies. But those in bondage know of no other solutions. Family and personal virtue (essential ingredients for any civilization) are now effectively replaced by an increasingly dark and despotic centralized control, hungry for more and more power. In this way, the civilization is gradually ended, because people in bondage no longer have the virtues necessary to fight.
Another possibility is that a more powerful nation or group is able to enter, by invasion or replacement, and destroy the final vestiges of a decadent civilization and replace it with their own culture.
Either way, it’s back to crucible, until suffering and conflict bring about enough of the wisdom, virtue, and courage necessary to begin a new civilization that will rise from the ashes.
Thus are the stages of civilizations. Sic transit gloria mundi. The Church has witnessed a lot of this in just the brief two millennia of her time. In addition to civilizations, nations have come and gone quite frequently over the years. Few nations have lasted longer than 200 years. Civilizations are harder to define with exact years, but at the beginning of the New Covenant, Rome was already in decline. In the Church’s future would be other large nations and empires in the West: the “Holy” Roman Empire, various colonial powers, the Spanish, the Portuguese, and the French. It was once said that “The sun never sets on the British Empire.” Now it does. As the West began a long decline, Napoleon made his move. Later, Hitler strove to build a German empire. Then came the USSR. And prior to all this, in the Old Testament period, there had been the Kingdom of David, to be succeeded by Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome.
The only true ark of safety is the Church, who received her promise of indefectibility from the Lord (Matt 16:18). But the Church, too, is always in need of reform and will have much to suffer. Yet she alone will survive this changing world, because she is the Bride of Christ and also His Body.
These are hard days, but perspective can help. It is hard to deny that we are living at the end of an era. It is painful because something we love is dying. But from death comes forth new life. Only the Lord knows the next stage and long this interregnum will be. Look to Him. Go ahead and vote, but put not your trust in princes (Ps 146:3). God will preserve His people, as He did in the Old Covenant. He will preserve those of us who are now joined to Him in the New Covenant. Find your place in the ark, ever ancient and yet new.
7 Replies to “How Civilizations Rise and Fall in Eight Stages”
Monsignor: Thank you for your thoughtfulness.
The way the individual and group behaviors manifest each in the other is amazing. Could not the stages you mention apply to an individual human, and not just a collection of humans? I think so. We start in bondage, dependant, as infants. Then struggle and grow to adulthood, achieve a semblance of independence and autonomy, and with the deprivations of age and disease, fall back into dependency. (Time marches on, and takes no prisoners.)
As a nurse, my advice is to receive the Sacraments regularly, stay in a stay of grace as best you can, and pray the Rosary daily, for a start. Pray to die a prepared death, peacefully in your own bed at home.
›› “(A)ll else passes; the Church is like an ark in the passing waters of this world”.
That’s a nice image. I haven’t thought about the Church as Ark in that way: that it’s the Rock in the shifting sands of history.
›› “From bondage to spiritual growth. – Great civilizations are formed in the crucible.”
In what crucible has, for example, the Roman Republic and Empire been formed? Or have the ancient Egyptians also been slaves before they’ve established their kingdom?
I would say that not all civilizations have risen or been formed in the same way.
›› “American culture was formed by the injustices that grew in colonial times. Sufferings and injustices cause – even force – spiritual growth. Suffering brings wisdom and demands a spiritual discipline that seeks justice and solutions.”
“Spiritual growth”… in the United States of America? Sir, what do you mean by that? Pentecostalism and all the rest of the typical North-American Christianity?
›› “Thus are the stages of civilizations.”
Vainglory/Pride –> Greed (Avarice) (including intellectual avarice) –> Lust –> Anger –> Gluttony –> Envy –> Sloth (physical, intellectual, and/or spiritual sloth). The order of the deadly passions; one leads to the other.
Very good and timely insight! In reading one of Scott Hahn’s books, I learned of a Harvard study and book published in 1947 by sociologist Prof. Carle Zimmerman, called Family and Civilization, of which I’ve read excerpts. It is very sobering. Thanks for your great input. We have all been warned. Also, I love reading your blogs on newadvent.org.
Dovetails quite nicely with Douthat’s The Decadent Society.
Dear Anonymous, Human nature will always be flawed and imperfectable. A goal of the American Constitution was to create a “more perfect union”so recognizing that imperfection.
Still, over the decades virtue prevailed in a war of judgement for slavery that cost over six-hundred thousand American lives.
With in the subsequent decade the 13th,14th,and 15th amendment to the Constitution were passed outlawing slavery,making former slaves citizens, and extending voting rights. These acts of virtue by the powerful giving-up power for “a more perfect union”.
Still the evil of terror against former slaves existed to deny their rights ending in Segregation by law in much of America and voting rights were denied until Segregation and voting rights denial were ended by civil rights legislation in 1964-65.
In the meantime Women were given the right to vote. Unrestrained Capitalism was reigned-in and “Robber Baron’s” who oppressed the workers were sent to jail.
Other examples of national virtues exist in the form of legislation built upon a vigorous and free civilization in which we agreed that human life was sacred, that average people when given liberty could govern themselves and submit by conscience to a code of shared moral values. As de Tocqvielle wrote “as long as America is good, America will be great”.
Certainly we are not always good. As any people we harbor flaws. Because we are imperfect persons striving to be perfect as God is perfect we will fall short. America also is made of imperfect people perhaps still seeking a perfect union.
Marxism , if it succeeds in overwhelming Western Civilization will only be replaced by Islam , but the eternal church will never be replaced. And so; Christ returns to establish His Kingdom, or the cycles of civilization will continue, but in the end all that will matter to each one of us will be our relationship with God and where we spend Eternity.
Anonymous, please consider God is calling to you now as you read this.
I live in Europe and, to be honest, don’t know much about the history of the USA; also, I’m not interested in the current ‘debates’ and conflicts about racism.
But do I err if I say, that the USA have been in and from their beginnings a primarily Protestant country/land/nation/whatever? (and have remained so at least until the large-scale rise of atheism and heathenism – in the 1960s/’70s? – which, yes, is worse). Do I err when I say, that the USA have their roots in Protestantism? If that is correct, then why shouldn’t I, as a Catholic (layperson), have issues with any idealization of the USA’s past? I consider it especially dishonest – or at least a sign of superficiality – when and if it’s done by a Catholic priest. (Yes, Sgr C. Pope, I’m looking at you.)
The majority of the Protestants have repeatedly and continually demanded the separation of church and state. So what did they expect? What we see today could have (perhaps has?) been predicted already a century or two centuries ago.
“The concept of secular government as expressed in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution reflected both the influence of the French Enlightenment on colonial intellectuals and the special interests of the established [Protestant] churches in preserving their separate and distinct identities. The Baptists, notably, held the separation of church and state powers as a principle of their creed.
“The great wave of migration to the United States by Roman Catholics in the 1840s prompted a reassertion of the principle of secular government by state legislatures fearing allocation of government funds to parochial educational facilities.”
(Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica, the article on Church and State)
@anonymous. Actually the protestant demand for separation of church and state is pretty much limited to theological morality. This is how we got almost unlimited abortion, abolishment of “dry” states, blue laws, etc. In fact any law that appears favorable to traditional Catholic, Jewish or fundamentalist Protestant belief is looked upon with suspicion. It also appears that it is possible for a civilization to be in two or more stages, at least partially, at the same time. The presumed democrat nominee for President has demonstrated that it is possible to hold numerous contradictory positions simultaneously and not be embarrassed about it. Looks like interesting times (Chinese definition) ahead.
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