This blog post is a follow-up from yesterday’s blog. You can read yesterday’s post by clicking HERE.
When we encounter the resurrection accounts in the New Testament we face a challenge in putting all the pieces together in a way that the sequence of the events flow in logical order. This is due to the fact that no one Gospel presents all, or even most of the data. Some of the data also seems to conflict. I tried to show in yesterday’s blog that these apparent conflicts are not, usually, true conflicts. Another problem with putting all the facts together in a coherent and reasonably complete manner is that the time line of the events is often unclear in some of the accounts. Luke and John are the clearest as to the time frame of the events they describe but Matthew and Luke given us very few parameters. Both Acts and Paul also supply data wherein the time frame is not always clear.
Nevertheless I want to propose to you a possible, even likely, sequence of the Resurrection events. The work is my own and I make no claim that this scenario is certain or backed up by recognized ancient authority. St Augustine has done quite a lot of work in this matter and you can read that by clicking HERE. My attempts here are simply the fruit of 20+ years of praying over and pondering the events of those forty days between the Lord’s resurrection and ascension. My reflections are based as solidly as possible on the actual biblical data with a small sprinkling of speculation. I realize that the attempt to do this will irritate some modern biblical scholars who, for reasons unclear to me, seem to insist it is wrong to attempt any synthesis of the texts.
Nevertheless I boldly press on figuring that the average believer will benefit from it and find such a synthesis interesting. Take it for what it is, the work of an obscure pastor who has prayed and carefully sought to follow the sequence of the forty days. You may wish to offer correction or alternative interpretation and are encouraged to do so in the comments. I have posted a PDF of this Document that is easier to read here: Resurrection Chronological Sequence
- I. The Morning of Day One
- A. Very early in the morning a group of several women, including Mary Magdalene, approach the tomb to complete burial customs on behalf of Jesus (Matt 28:1; Mk 16:1; Jn 20:1).
- B. They behold the tomb opened and are alarmed.
- C. Mary Magdalene runs to Peter and John with distressing news of likely grave robbers (John 20:2)
- D. The women who remain encounter an angel who declared to them that Jesus had risen and that they should tell this to the brethren (Mk 16:5; Lk 24:4; Matt 28:5).
- E. They are filled with fear at first and depart from the tomb afraid to speak (Mk 16:8)
- F. Recovering their courage they decide to go to the Apostles. (Luke 24:9; Matt 28:8)
- G. Meanwhile Peter and John have gone out to the tomb to investigate Mary’s claim. Mary Magdalene followed them back out to the tomb arriving before they left. Peter and John discover the tomb empty though they encounter no angel. John believes in the resurrection. Peter’s conclusion is not recorded.
- H. The other women have reported what the angels say to the Apostles. Peter and John have not yet returned and these remaining apostles are dismissive of the women’s story at first (Lk 24:9-11).
- I. Mary, lingering at the tomb weeps and is fearful. Peering into the tomb she sees this time two angels who wonder why she weeps. Jesus then approaches her from behind. Not looking directly at Jesus, she supposes him to be the gardener. Then he calls her by name, and Mary, recognizing his voice, turns and sees him. Filled with joy she clings to him. (APPEARANCE 1) (Jn 20:16)
- J. Jesus sends her back to the apostles with the news to prepare them for his appearance later that day. (Jn 20:17)
- K. The other women have departed the apostles and are on their way possibly back home. Jesus then appears to them (Mat 28:9) after he had dispatched Mary. He also sends them back to the apostles with the news that he had risen and that he would see them. (APPEARANCE 2)
- II. The Afternoon and evening of day one.
- A. Later that Day, two disciples on their way to Emmaus are pondering what they have heard about rumors of his resurrection. Jesus comes up behind them but they are prevented from recognizing him. First Jesus breaks open the word for them, then sits at table with them and celebrates the Eucharist whereupon their eyes are opened and they recognize him in the breaking of the bread. (APPEARANCE 3) (Luke 24:13-30)
- B. The two disciples returned that evening to Jerusalem and went to the Eleven. At first the eleven disbelieved them just as they had the women (Mk 16:13). Nevertheless they continue to relate what they had experienced. At some point Peter drew apart from the others (perhaps for a walk?) And the Lord appeared to Peter (APPEARANCE 4)(Lk 24:34; 1 Cor 15:5) who informed the other ten who then believed. Thus the disciples from Emmaus (still lingering with the apostles) were now told (perhaps by way of apology) that it was in indeed true that Jesus had risen (Lk 24:34).
- C. Almost at the same moment Jesus appears to the small gathering of apostles and the two disciples from Emmaus. (APPEARANCE 5) Thomas was absent (although the Lucan text describes the appearance as to “the eleven” this is probably just a euphemism for “the apostles” as a group) They are startled but Jesus reassures them and opens the scriptures to them (Lk 24:36ff).
- D. There is some debate as to whether he appeared to them a second time that night. The Johannine account has significantly different data about the appearance on the first Sunday evening from the Lucan account. Is it merely different data about the same account or is it a wholly separate appearance? It is not possible to say. Nevertheless since the data is so different we can call it (APPEARANCE 6) (John 20:19ff) though it is likely synonymous with appearance 5.
- III. Interlude –
- A. There is no biblical data that Jesus appeared to them during the week that followed. The next account of the resurrection says, “Eight days later” namely the following Sunday.
- B. We do know that the apostles surely exclaimed to Thomas that they had seen the Lord but he refused to believe it. (Jn 20:24-26)
- C. Were the apostles nervous that Jesus had not appeared again each day? Again we do not know, the data is simply silent as to what happened during this interlude.
- IV. One week later, Sunday two.
- A. Jesus appears once again (APPEARANCE 7) to the apostles gathered. This time Thomas is with them. He calls Thomas to faith who now confesses Jesus to be Lord and God. (John 20:24-29)
- V. Interlude 2
- A. The apostles received some instructions to return to Galilee (Mat 28:10; Mk 16:7) where they would see Jesus. Thus they spent some of the week journeying 60 miles to the north. This would have taken some time. We can imagine them making the trek north during the intervening days.
- VI. Some time later –
- A. The time frame of the next appearance is somewhat vague. John merely says “After this.” Likely it is a matter of days or a week at best. The scene is at the Sea of Galilee. Not all the Twelve are present. They have gone fishing and Jesus summons them from the lakeside. They come to shore and see him (APPEARANCE 8 ) . Peter has a poignant discussion with Jesus in this appearance and is commissioned to tend the flock of Christ (John 21).
- B. The Appearance to the 500. Of all the appearances you might think that this one would have been recorded in some detail since it was the most widely experienced appearance. Many accounts it seems would have existed and at least one would have made its way into the scriptures. Yet there is no account of it other than it did in fact happen. Paul records the fact of this appearance: 1Corinithians 15:6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. (APPEARANCE 9) Where did this take place. What was it like. What was the reaction? We simply do not know. Proof once again that the Bible is not a history book in the conventional sense. Rather it is a highly selective telling of what took place, not a complete account. The Bible makes no pretenses to be something it is not. It is quite clear that it is a selective book: (John 20:30).
- C. The Appearance to James. Here again we do not have a description of this appearance only a remark by Paul that it did in fact happen: 1Cor 15:7 Then he appeared to James. (APPEARANCE 10) The time frame is not clear. Only that it happened after the appearance to the five hundred and before the final appearance to the apostles.
- VII. The rest of the forty days.
- A. Jesus certainly had other on-going appearances with the disciples. Luke attests to this in Acts when he writes: Acts 1: 3 To them he presented himself alive after his passion by many proofs, appearing to them during forty days, and speaking of the kingdom of God.
- B. During this time there is perhaps the one appearance we can attribute to this time period as recorded by Matthew (28:16ff) and Mark (16:14ff). It takes place an “a mountaintop in Galilee.” Mark adds that they were reclining at table. For these notes this appearance (time frame uncertain) is referred to as (APPEARANCE 11) It is here that he give the great commission. Although Mark’s text may seem to imply that Jesus was taken up from this mountain, such a conclusion is rash since Mark only indicates that Jesus ascended only “after he had spoken to them” (Mk 16:19).
- Evidently Jesus had also summoned them back to Jerusalem at least toward the end of the period of the forty days. There they would be present for the feast of Pentecost. We can imagine frequent appearances with on-going instruction for Luke records that Jesus “stayed with them.” Most of these appearances and discourses are not recorded. Luke writes in Acts: And while staying with them he charged them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me, for John baptized with water, but before many days you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 1:4)
- VIII. The final appearance and ascension:
- A. After forty days of appearances and instructions we have a final account of the last appearance (APPEARANCE 12) wherein he led them out to a place near Bethany, gave them final instructions to wait in Jerusalem until the Holy Spirit was sent. And then he was taken up to heaven in their very sight. (Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1).
So here is a possible and, if I do say so myself, likely chronological sequence of the resurrection appearances. It is a kind of synthesis that attempts to collect all the data and present it in a logical order. There are limits to what we can expect of the Scriptural account, and fitting perfectly into a time frame and logical sequence is not what the texts primarily propose to do. Yet such a chronological sequence can prove helpful and it is in that spirit that I present this.
Resurrection: Rob Bell from Rob Bell on Vimeo.
21 Replies to “A Chronological Sequence of the Resurrection Events”
Great list 🙂
Number eight in Judaism signifies new beginnings, so you got the eighth day.
Number twelve signifies Israel and union with God, so you got twelve resurrection appearances.
This is great!
“It is the glory of God to conceal a matter; the glory of kings is to seek it out.” – Proverbs 25:2
I would like to add if I might, one of the very first encounters that Jesus had. In Jn 20:21-23 where Jesus tells the Apostles twice, “Peace be with you”, and then He tells them how to achieve this peace. First Jesus breaths on them. Where is the only other time in the Bible that God breathes on man? In Genesis when He breathes life into man. Now Our Lord breathes new life into us in the Sacrament of Reconciliation. Jesus breathes on His Apostles and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; If you retain the sins of any, they are retained.” Just as at the Last Supper, where Our Lord gives us the first Mass, His Body and Blood, and the priesthood – his last gifts to us – He now gives us the means to be pure and holy, Confession. It is so important that it is one of His very first acts upon His Resurrection. Thank you, Jesus!
Yes, this is well said.
Did you use any of the Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ?
Can’t say I do, no particular reason really. I’ve just not been that exposed to it.
Msgr Pope, it is simply amazing. St Anne Catherine and everything she spoke… simply amazing.
Yes it is, for sure. And Venerable Mary of Agreda’s Mystical City of God (abridged paperback).
Very interesting. Have you done something like this with the Passion accounts?
Sorry, can’t say that I have.
I would strongly recommend for anyone who has not read it, N.T. Wright’s tour de force “The Resurrection of the Son of God.” He makes one of the strongest cases to date for the historicity of the resurrection and offers some penetrating thoughts about its significance. It’s a long read, but well worth it. (He has a shorter book on the same subject written for a more general audience which I have not read but which I’ve heard is good. It is called “Surprised By Hope”.) If you would like to hear a summary of his argument, try watching or listening to his talk “Can a Scientist Believe in the Resurrection?”, which can be found here:
This is fantastic Father. Thank you for providing this!
ad Jesum per Mariam,
I really appreciate that someone has taken time off and put the various chapters together, because it makes my understanding of the 40 days of Pentecost easier. May God continue His blessings on us all, and keep us unted in one faith, and help us to really understand what His cricifixtion meant for us all. God bless.
In the Gospel of John, 20: 17, Jesus saith to her: Do not touch me, for I am not yet ascended to my Father. But go to my brethren, and say to them: I ascend to my Father and to your Father, to my God and your God.
Can you give some explanation what did Jesus meant by telling Mary Magdalene these words. On the next Sunday, Jesus told Thomas to touch his hands and side wounds. Is there any difference between the Sunday of the Resurrection and the 2nd Sunday.
Much appreciations for your blogs Msgr. Ch. Pope.
The usual understanding is that the Greek is better translated, “do go on touching me.” In English, we have an expression, “Don’t cling to me.” Hence Jesus is asking Mary to stop clinging to him and he has something for her to do. As for his ascending, I have usually understood that to mean that he too still has a mission here, prior to ascension. Also he says later he is ascending, and I take this to mean that he being understood by them in a more exalted manner.
I really like your work, Msgr. I just linked to this post from my blog:
Your account posits a credible chronology of nearly all of the events of that first Easter, but I have a question and a comment.
First, the Emmaus disciples tell the “eleven”–which must have included Peter–that “the Lord has truly been raised and has appeared to Simon!” If the Simon they refer to is Peter, why wouldn’t Peter have already told the ten about this appearance? Simon was a common name, so I suppose it might have been another Simon. But if so, who, and why was he singled out for mention in Luke’s account?
My comment: That the sequence does not appear to make chronological sense doesn’t bother me because the Risen Lord was also the master of time. Bi- or multi-appearances simultaneously in different places were possible for Him who created time. That He may have moved backward or forward in time is also possible, if humanly mind-bending. In retrospect the gospel writers may have simply accepted Jesus’ appearances in whatever sequence they occurred knowing by then that He was free to do as he pleased and all that mattered was that he had risen from the dead–a fact that made anything possible. Science fiction writers spin stories about how movent forward or backward in time might change history. Just so.
The “Eleven” may be used euphemistically and does not need to imply an actual headcount
This is good work. Thank you.
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